Glossary of Protandim Terms
Antioxidant: Molecules capable
of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules by neutralizing free
Cell: Basic building blocks of all living
things; provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from
food, convert into energy and carry out specialized functions.
DNA: Molecules inside cells that carry genetic
information and pass it from one generation to the next.
DNA Sequence: The composition of atoms that
make up the nucleic acid in the chemical bonds that bond those
atoms; has the capacity to represent information, which directs the
functions of a living thing.
Enzyme: Proteins that increase
the rates of chemical reactions; can be affected by other
molecules; can be inhibitors, molecules that decrease enzyme
activity, or activators, molecules that increase activity.
Free Radical: Highly reactive, unstable
molecules with an unsatisfied electron pair; scavenge the body to
grab or donate electrons, thereby damaging cells, proteins and DNA;
arise from sources inside and outside our bodies, including
breathing, metabolism, inflammation, pollution, sunlight, exercise,
smoking and drinking alcohol.
Gene: A molecular unit of
heredity of a living organism; made of DNA; acts as instructions to
make molecules called proteins; hold the information to build and
maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to
Oxidative Stress: A condition that results from
physiological stress on the body that is caused by the cumulative
damage done by free radicals inadequately neutralized by
antioxidants; damages cellular components such as DNA, proteins and
Nrf2: A protein that binds
itself to a DNA sequence. It has been called the "master regulator
of the body's aging process." When activated, Nrf2 enters the
nucleus of a cell and stimulates protective genes and enzymes to
neutralize the effects of free radicals and other reactive
Nucleus: An organelle (a specialized subunit
within a cell) that contains most of the cell's genetic material,
organized as DNA molecules in complex with large proteins to form
chromosomes; functions to maintain the integrity of these genes and
to control the activities of the cell.
Protein: A biochemical compound and chief actor
within the cell, carrying out the duties specified by the encoded
information in genes. They are the machines that make all living
things function. The body contains trillions of cells, and there
are thousands of proteins within each cell that work together to
run the cell.
A T-BAR test reflects oxidative damage to polyunsaturated
lipids, perhaps the most sensitive major class of biological
molecules to free radical damage.