Glossary of Protandim Terms


Antioxidant: Molecules capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules by neutralizing free radicals.


Cell: Basic building blocks of all living things; provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food, convert into energy and carry out specialized functions.


DNA: Molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next.


DNA Sequence: The composition of atoms that make up the nucleic acid in the chemical bonds that bond those atoms; has the capacity to represent information, which directs the functions of a living thing.


Enzyme: Proteins that increase the rates of chemical reactions; can be affected by other molecules; can be inhibitors, molecules that decrease enzyme activity, or activators, molecules that increase activity.


Free Radical: Highly reactive, unstable molecules with an unsatisfied electron pair; scavenge the body to grab or donate electrons, thereby damaging cells, proteins and DNA; arise from sources inside and outside our bodies, including breathing, metabolism, pollution, sunlight, exercise, smoking and drinking alcohol.


Gene: A molecular unit of heredity of a living organism; made of DNA; acts as instructions to make molecules called proteins; hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to offspring.


Oxidative Stress: A condition that results from physiological stress on the body that is caused by the cumulative damage done by free radicals inadequately neutralized by antioxidants; damages cellular components such as DNA, proteins and lipids.


Nrf2: A protein that binds itself to a DNA sequence. It has been called a "master regulator of the body's aging process." When activated, Nrf2 enters the nucleus of a cell and stimulates protective genes and enzymes to neutralize the effects of free radicals and other reactive substances.


Nucleus: An organelle (a specialized subunit within a cell) that contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with large proteins to form chromosomes; functions to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell. 


Protein: A biochemical compound and chief actor within the cell, carrying out the duties specified by the encoded information in genes. They are the machines that make all living things function. The body contains trillions of cells, and there are thousands of proteins within each cell that work together to run the cell.


T-BAR Test
A T-BAR test reflects oxidative damage to polyunsaturated lipids, perhaps the most sensitive major class of biological molecules to free radical damage.

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